Project management can be defined as a field of study by which different organizations can easily plan and implement new technologies and other measures in their businesses. This particular concept has gained a good recognition as a system which is helping all these companies in providing the best products and services in particular time and also in minimum cost with limited resources. It can also be said that if a company will use project management in the most appropriate manner then they will be able to utilize all their resources in terms of finance, human and technological in the most suitable manner. This particular report has been made by taking a case study of famous Palm Tree Spa who wants to install software like MIS and websites in order to attract international and domestic tourists so that it can gain competitive advantages easily.
Project management is one of the best techniques that allow companies to have proper and most efficient means to make functionality in businesses very smooth and appropriate (Baguley, 2008). This project management guides and help companies to work in such a manner that everything can be done in the most suitable manner. History of project management is very old and it can be seen from the development that has been going on since 208 BC.
It can be clearly understood that the background of project management is very old and it is still developing and changing itself so that proper new age challenges like globalization, competition, etc. can be faced in appropriate manner. As the word is becoming more technological, this project management is also helping companies to fulfill all their goals and objectives in best possible manner (Bolles, 2002). There are various approaches, theories as well as principles that have been developed as a big part of the project management. It is very important for companies as well as individuals to have a very deep understanding of all the different principles that are involved in project management so that every task can be implemented in most appropriate manner and with full efficiency. Some main principles that are directly involved in the project management and that will help Palm Tree Spa in their objectives are-
Vision and Mission- It is very important for corporations to define their mission and vision statements in suitable manner so that work can be done and people can be motivated according to that. Further, it is also very important for all business entities to make sure that the projects that have been implemented meets all their objectives as well as long term goals. These proper mission and vision statements will allow companies to generate all their expected outcomes and will force them to achieve the desired results (Clough, 2010).
Project Structure- The main aim of Palm Tree resort and spa is to install MIS system so that it can attract international tourists in appropriate manner and can also do all its work with proper structures. In order to implement this particular software, it is very important for the company to define proper structure so that project can be completed with respect to time and with proper resources so that quality of project can be maintained.
Definition Phase- This particular principle of project management is directly related in terms of determining the cost of project so that funds can be allocated in the most appropriate manner with respect to different activities. In terms of implementing MIS in organization, it is very important for the management of Palm Tree Spa to identify proper cost of project so it can determine whether firm is able to fund for a particular project or not.
Transparency in project- It is also one of the most important principles that allow company to share proper information between management and project managers so that project can be undertaken in appropriate manner (Dvir, 2013). Each and everything in organization that is related to particular project should be clear to all people which are directly and indirectly related to it.
Defining proper responsibilities of project manager- It is very important for a project manager to have clear idea about the project which he is handing so that he can fulfill all his responsibilities in appropriate manner. It will allow the manager to do this particular project in the most successful manner.
Standards of Engagement- It is also very important for Palm Tree Spa to make sure that all its employees are completely engaged in all activities that are related to project so that this proper engagement can help the firm to fulfill all objectives that it has set in most suitable manner.
Measurement and accountability- The performance of all employees which is related to project as well as project it should be judged so that it can be seen that everything is going in line with the set objectives and nothing is deviating from its path. It is also very important for this corporation to monitor the performance of employees and project so that everything can be done appropriately and if anything doubtful is found then it can also be changed in the most effective manner (Kanungo, 2008).
All the above project management principles are very effective and will help Palm Tree Spa to fulfill all its goals in effective manner. These principles will help this corporation to install MIS system and will also allow them to create an effective website design which will attract not only domestic but also international tourists for them and it will be able to get competitive advantages very soon.
It is one of the biggest responsibility of management of Palm Tree Spa to determine proper success and failure of project that it is implementing in its business (Kerzner, 2002). However, in order to ascertain success and failure of this particular project, it is very crucial for the company to set proper criteria that have been described below-
Achievement of business objectives- It is a fact that all business objectives are derived so that proper benchmarks can be set in order to achieve goals of firm in long time run. The project which is implemented will only be successful when it will be able to meet all business goals in effective and appropriate manner. The objectives that have been framed or pre-decided are directly made in order to provide proper and suitable guidance in the implementation of plan. It can also be said that the success of project can be judged directly on the level of business objectives in terms of their achievements.
Availability of Proper Funds- It can be said that success of project can be anticipated much effectively if there is proper availability of all financial resources because without proper funding, nothing can be done (Knapp, 2010). In a given case, it can be seen that management of Palm Tree Spa has sanctioned the complete budget in order to develop website and to install MIS projects. So, it is very important for them to make sure that this allocated budget is sufficient in order to fulfill all goals and objectives that have been set and if something more is required then it should be arranged on time.
Project Team Members (Technical People)- The success of project can also be foreseen and directly related to people which are related with the project. It is very important for these people to have sound knowledge and also competent skills so that they can implement all system as per desires of company in effective manner. In case of Palm Tree Spa, it is very important that people possess very high skills to install MIS in appropriate manner.
Optimum Utilization of resources- There are different types of resources which are available to the company and in order to define success for MIS project, it is very important for the firm to use all these resources in terms of human, finance and others in most effective and efficient manner (Lock, 2004). Criteria in order to evaluate all these resources should be defined appropriately so that everything can be managed in desired manner. It is only because of the analysis of proper utilization of resources; Palm Tree Spa will be able to judge proficiency of project in appropriate manner.
Sound Communication between management and project manager- In order to define success of this installation of MIS in Palm Tree Spa, it is very important to have proper communication between management of company and project manager so that both parties can know the real stage of project in order to contribute effectively to complete it in effective manner. It will also help these people to make effective changes if any deviations are found from original plan or if something needs to be changed in order to make the project more successful.
Failure criteria for project-
Delays- It is one of the biggest criteria that can really define failure as well as success of project that Palm Tree Spa is planning to execute (Mehta, 2007). It has been seen that most of the time, projects are considered as insignificant and ineffective because of delays. If there will be delay in a particular project then it will not only increase its cost but it will also force the people to exert extra efforts which are very ineffective for any organization. If such thing is happening in company then it will be directly be determined as project failure.
Exceeding Costs- If the cost of project gets exceeded from originally planned cost then it would also be one big factor in failure of a particular project. This particular thing usually happens when proper budgets are not made by looking at some conditions that company might have to face in the future.
Unclear and unrealistic Objectives- It is also one of the factors in which if objectives and goals of project are not clear to the management as well as people which are involved in business, then nothing will be done as it was desired at the time of starting of project and there also will be some kind of ambiguity in all activities of project (Patel, 2008).
Unmet Targets and Benchmarks- It is also one factor that can directly cause failure of projects as if company will not be able to break down all its project activities as well as if it is not able to target and breakdowns then nothing will be done in appropriate manner. It can be said that targets that are not achieved indicates inefficiency on the part of a team directly.
It can be said that project that Palm Tree Spa is planning to execute should be judged on the criteria that has been stated above as it will help them to do all activities in appropriate manner and success rate of project will also be increased.
One most important element in whole project management is the proper use of all resources in organization so that everything can be done as desired. It is very important for the business units to make proper use of resources in terms of technical, human, finance, etc. while implementing new projects (Ramroth, 2006). Some principles that can be used in managing proper resources are-
Management Information System- It is because of the use of proper MIS system, company will be able to pass on information to all its employees in effective manner which will help them to make use of its human resources in efficient manner.
Motivation and Leadership- It is also a one big factor that will allow the company to motivate and encourage people in company in effective manner which will help them to complete all projects on time and in full quality.
Financial Techniques- It is very important for the company to make use of proper finance techniques so that everything can be planned as per the desired budget of firm. Organization can easily use techniques like Zero base budgeting in order to allocate and manage the funds in business.
Project Life Cycle- This particular cycle of project plan will allow the company in determining proper utilization of resources. It is also called as the basic principle of organization to design a particular life cycle in efficient manner so that all business goals can be achieved effectively (Safsten, 2009).
It is called as the last stage of project and it is also considered to be as most important one that help the company to implement all their projects in the most efficient manner. It is very important for the management to take this particular closing stage very seriously. Processes that are involved in this stage are-
Financial reports- When a particular project reaches to its completion stage, it is important for the project manager to make proper financial reports about the whole project because in this report details regarding costs that were incurred, etc. will be involved. It will also show different funds that have been sanctioned against the particular project.
Canvassing of Project Report- This report should also be formed because in this, details about whole project are dictated which helps the organization to know what has been done on what stage of project. It also includes the challenges that have to be faced by the project department while making project (Cervone, 2006).
Conduct Reviews- It is very important for the management to conduct review of all activities that have been done in a particular project so that it can be matched with the desired activities.
Evaluating loopholes- It is very important to evaluate loopholes in the project so that proper measures can be taken against them on time and it will also help the firm to make project more sustainable for long time basis.
Testing and Implementation of project- It is very important for the company to conduct pilot test and then to implement the project so that if there is any issue then it can be caught in very beginning.
Pre-Project Appraisals- It is also very important for the business unit to conduct proper pre-project appraisals so that proper future course of project can be set. It is very important for the project manager to evaluate all activities and to identify some best people. Their appraisals will boost their motivation and will also force other people to work hard (Dalcher, 2012).
In order to make any project successful, it is very important for Palm Tree Spa to do proper planing of its human resources. It will help the firm to complete its desired project on time and also in the most appropriate manner. Company needs to make sure that all employees which are working in organization should have only one purpose and that is to achieve all goals and objectives that have been set by the company. Till now, the company has been successful in providing the best facilities to people but as competition is increasing, it has also become very important for Palm Tree Spa to make sure that proper and good customer services are given to guests and for that, proper training's should be given to these people and in suitable manner. Entity requires setting up proper MIS, customer relationship systems and official website so that targeted customers can be communicated in the most appropriate manner. Other than this, in order to fulfill this project, it is important for the company to recruit some good people (Hillson, 2003). There are various departments which should be included in company and that are-
The role of MIS department in company will be to classify, collect and summarize the different kinds of information like customer details, monetary transactions, feedback of customers, etc. This information can be send to different departments of firm so that proper actions could be taken on that basis.
IT department in company will be responsible for maintaining website of organization in appropriate manner. These people will be able to record online and offline booking in order to estimate the actions that can affect the firm directly and indirectly.
It is very important to establish proper coordination among different team members and departments in Palm Tree Spa so that all desires as well as short and long term goals of company can be fulfilled in the most appropriate manner. The structure that has been defined above will help the company to install MIS, CRM and website in the most suitable manner and these people will also help the firm to give in gaining competitive advantage in the market (Kirkland, 2014). From the chart, it can be said that other then vice president, each and every department has a project manager with team lead so that all activities of company can be managed appropriately. In order to create proper coordination among team members, it is important for the management of Palm Tree Spa to have effective communication systems so that each and every task that company is doing can be cleared to all employees and with this communication practice, these people will also be able to coordinate with other departments.
As management has decided to install MIS in company, it will really help them to maintain proper and effective coordination between each other. These MIS and IT systems will also provide other significant benefits to the company as it will help them to improve its service delivery which is crucial in the success of firm. This MIS will also help the organization in attracting high value customers from all around the world which will give them core competence against competitors. Implementation of technology department will also enhance the working of company as it will be able to provide easy booking and other facilities in appropriate manner. This department will also increase the online presence of company which will give them an opportunity to market themselves effectively.
Team working is one of the most essential elements that are required for the success of any business (Kumaraswamy, 2011). However, leading a team is a very difficult process because a person has to manage lots of people. It is very crucial for the team leader to adopt appropriate leadership style so that particular project of company can be carried out in the most appropriate manner. By looking at the project of company, it can be said that project manager should adopt mix of autocratic and democratic leadership style. The reason for selecting this style is that project manager is a person who has wide knowledge in terms of implementing MIS and other technological system so he will be able to guide lower management in effective manner. Further, democratic style can be used with middle level management because these people also have some experience and if their ideas are implemented then project can be made much better. This style will also work in case when the motivation of team is low because leader will be able to understand the feelings of workers in most suitable manner and it will also help him to solve all these issues.
Project team members can be easily divided as per the roles that have been decided by Belbin's and also the team that can be classified into three categories of roles which are Action, people and thought oriented. With this structure, each and every person in the team will have proper structure and work to do (Sommerville, 2006). These leadership qualities will help the manager to clarify clear vision and competent skills in project which is very necessary.
Other than this, it is also very important for a leader to have good leadership qualities like-
Open-minded- It will help the project manager to listen others and make project much more successful. With this quality, manager will be able to increase his value among employees and all people will like to follow and listen to him in effective manner. It will increase the success rates of projects.
Communication- It will help project manager to assign task to everyone in appropriate manner which will help people to understand their roles (Wright, 2002). With this quality, manager will also be able to contact top management effectively in order to give them proper position of project time to time.
Initiative- It is important for the project manager to bring some new and innovative techniques to make the project of company more attractive. It will help the firm to manage their work in most efficient manner and viability of project will also be affected in positive manner.
Motivator- It will help the manager to encourage people to do work in much effective manner. With this, quality will be encouraged and they will be able to solve all their issues in much more efficient manner.
Project plan in order to establish MIS and website in company can be-
Objective- Main objective of company is to install MIS and website so that it can attract more tourists and can get competitive advantage (Bentham, 2012).
Outcome- This implementation of MIS and website will help the firm to present itself on world map so that more customers can be attracted.
Designing- This project will be done by the experienced project managers who have experience in this field and also have some good team members. Time line of project will be of 2 months and this project will add two more departments in the company.
Contract terms- The proposed time of contract will be of 2 months and cost estimated is GBP 15,000.
Human Resource- This particular project will require at-least 10 people and the project will be completed, Palm tree Spa will have to higher 10-12 people so that these systems can be managed in effective manner.
Physical Resources- Some physical resources that will be required are computers, LAN system, cables, server, etc. (Economy, 2014).
Technological Resources- Resources like internet, software and website will be needed.
Financial Resources- Project estimation cost is GBP 15,000 which should be allocated appropriately.
The project team members will be headed by a project manager who will follow mix of autocratic and democratic leadership style.
Proper controlling and monitoring of project will be done with the help of post and pre projects evaluation. Further, bench-marking systems will also be followed.
Management of Palm Tree Spa can easily judge the performance of project that has been implemented by adopting different statistical and financial techniques. Techniques like cost benefit analysis and capital budgeting will help the management to make project much more effective. It is very important for the business entity to make sure that there is proper appraisal on different stages of company's work so that efficiency of each and every work can be increased in the most appropriate manner. Some techniques that can be used by the company are-
Cost Benefit Analysis- This particular technique can be used in order to measure the effectiveness of MIS and website designing project in the most appropriate manner. In this particular analysis, different monetary and numeric values are assigned against each input and expected outcomes (Project management, 2013). All these are then analyzed in order to find out whether numeric values of outcomes are greater than input values or not. If values of outcomes are more than value of inputs then it can be said that project will be very beneficial for the company.
Net Present value Method- It is one of the best and most appropriate appraisal techniques that can be used very easily in order to access proper financial feasibility and validity of project. In this particular method, all cost of investments as well as expected cash flows is directly measured by applying the discounted rate. If value of NPV is positive then particular project is considered to be feasible. This technique can be applied in this project to know its positivity.
Change control has a very great importance in the project management because it allows the manager to manage project in the most appropriate manner. In a particular given project management activity, this change management procedure will help the manager to make sure that work is done appropriately and no unnecessary changes are taken place in the project that can result in delay and in exceeding costs of projects. This particular change management procedure also ensures that there is no kind of discrepancy and ambiguity in the project as well as in management activities (Sharma, 2013). This particular case is done for the implementation of MIS and website for Palm Tree Spa and change management procedure that will be followed is-
This particular report was created in order to show the case of a company which is called as Palm tree Spa which wanted to install MIS software and develop website for its business so that it can attract tourists from all around the world and can also gain competitive advantage from the market in appropriate manner. From this report, it was analyzed that project management is very important as well as a very difficult activity which provides lots of benefits to the management but only if it is implemented in the most appropriate manner. There are lots of tasks and activities which are associated with these terms and it is important for the project manager to follow all those so that the project that has been undertaken can be completed in effective manner. Project of Palm Tree Spa that has been explained will be completed in 2 months and the cost that will be incurred has been identified as approximately GBP 15,000. In order to execute this project in most appropriate manner, it is very important for the project manager to follow proper leadership styles and to have good leadership qualities so that people can get motivated and all desired goals of organization can be met on time.
Baguley, P., 2008. Project management. McGraw-Hill.
Bolles, D., 2002. Building Project Management Centers of Excellence, Volume 1. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Clough, H. R., 2010. Construction Project Management: A Practical Guide to Field Construction Management. 5 ed. John Wiley & Sons.
Dvir, D., 2013. Reinventing Project Management: The Diamond Approach To Successful Growth And Innovation. Harvard Business Press.
Kanungo, S., 2008. Role of IT and KM in improving project management performance.
Kerzner, R. H., 2002. Strategic Planning for Project Management Using a Project Management Maturity Model. John Wiley & Sons.
Knapp, W. B., 2010. A Project Manager's Guide to Passing the Project Management (Pmp) Exam. www.pmexam.com.
Lock, D., 2004. Project management in construction. Gower.