Organization behavior is a course of action which provides immense help and support for the purpose of acquiring knowledge and developmental skills for carrying out various set of business activities with utmost effectiveness and efficiency. It proves beneficial in enhancing the overall effectiveness of the company in long run (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013). This present report is being divided in two parts, in first part report analysis of organizational behavior of City College and Enterprise will be carried out. Rent-A-Car is a one of the largest car hire organization with a workforce of 75,000 and above. City College is a private institute and its functioning is carried out with help of 200 staff members (Valencia, Jimenez and Valle, 2011). In this study, focus will be laid on diverse structure and culture adopted by both business enterprises. The statement will be followed by a range of approaches of leadership along with motivational theories adopted by both of them.
By means of organizational culture one can easily determine behavior of person employed at the place of work. It comprises of values, beliefs, policies etc. As per Handy’s classification organization culture has been divided as under:
Power culture: In this control is takes place from centre and involves few rules and regulations along with little bureaucracy. This entire course of action is entirely dependent on the on personality as well as availability of few concerned people as a result to which relations can be maintained effectively. However, it comprises of inflexible structure and small size (Willmott and Knights, 2007).
Role culture: In this type of culture entire power is derived from position of an individual as a result to which there is very little space for the expert power. But on the flip side, in this employee are not ambitious which leads to delay in attainment of organizational aims and objectives (Rashid, Sambasivan and Rahman, 2004).
Task culture: The rationale behind such type of culture is to resolve particular issue in stipulated period of time. But teams under this culture are not able to provide desired outcomes in challenging situation (Mail, Mohamed and Atan, 2006).
Person culture: Adequate amount of freedom is provided to the employee so that they can take decision on their behalf. But such type of culture is not found in almost every organization due to its freedom (Powell and Stewart, 2004).
With the help of organizational structure business is able to determine mode on the basis of which organization can carry out its operations with utmost effectiveness and efficiency. There is various organizational structure, some of them are enumerated as under:
Matrix structure: It provides assistance in making quick decision making as well as job specific. By means of this structure employees can make best utilization of the available resources in a best possible manner. But it is comparatively expensive in nature (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008).
Tall structure: It comprises of various layers as well as long chain of command as a result to which range of opportunities are being provided for promotion, control but lack of proper and sound communication (Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010).
Flat structure: This takes place in the middle level management and regarded as one of the most suitable structure for skilled employees, But on the flip side, it lacks control and managers are not able to delegate work effectively (Landy and Conte, 2010).
Mr. Wakefield has owned and managed entire functioning of the City College which comprises of 200 staff members along with 1500 students who are here for their higher education. Range of departments has been established for looking out entire course of action. It has flat organizational structure because they lack hierarchy. Top level has been managed by Mr. Wakefield and makes efforts for retaining their staff for longer period of time. On the contrary, tall organizational structure has been followed by Enterprise which is being managed by Andy Taylor. Although it has tall structure, communication is being followed appropriately due to their open door policy. Because of this employees can share their problems easily with management effectively (Hossan, Dixon and Brown, 2013).
Along with this, City College follows task culture in which employees manage their operations by themselves. They are able to accomplish their piece of work in a set period of time as staff is multi skilled in nature. Enterprise follows power culture they aim to provide maximum satisfaction to customers as well as employees by delivering efficient services. In order to attain desired results they follow four business objectives such as customer satisfaction, fleet growth, profitability and departments (Brunsman, DeVore and Houston, 2011).
Organizational culture and structure are inter related with each other and shares strong connection as a result of which employees are being provided with immense satisfaction and motivational level. This inspires workforce to perform better and provides assistance in gaining competitive edge over their rivals. In order to hire best employees companies need to design their recruitment process which leads to attainment of aims and objectives of an organization. Aim of City College is to develop sustainable college by means of its structure as well as culture. It can affect flexibility up to a certain extent as it is being directed with some objectives (Inamori, Analoui and Kakabadse, 2012).
In the similar manner, for the purpose of retaining existing workforce various chances of further growth and development has been provided to its staff members so that they feel motivated and carry out their duties sincerely. It has been observed that College was being awarded no.1 in 2005 for excellence in education. In order to flourish more their marketing team need to know about the needs and wants of students, lay focus on formulation of strategies, marketing plans and so on. Along with this, with the help of PR, managing communication they can enhance their brand image with that of generation of novel ideas for the same (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013).
Behavior is a way by which person react and carry out work in a specific situation. There exists a range of factors which poses capability to affect activity of an individual. Some of them are enumerated under:
Skills: It is the capacity of a person with the help of which particular task can be performed. On the basis of present skills and abilities an employee will be able to deliver effective results while carrying out his course of work (Ara, 2013).
Perception: This is concerned to work in which person can respond to the environment as what they see. Organization need to develop positive and favorable work environment for the purpose of motivating staff so that they can retain for longer duration (Huether, 2011).
Attitude: It is a type of tendency which provides assistance in determining positive as well as negative reactions in one’s behavior which entirely depends on the situation which is prevailing (Willmott and Knights, 2007).
Personality: Family, friends, community and so on has the capacity to affect personality of a person. In any business enterprise, specific set of behavior is expected from workforce so that on the basis of that duties and responsibilities can be assigned to them. First and foremost duty of a manager is to consider compatibility level of personality of employee with that of task and culture of the company (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
As per the case study, mission statement of City College is to deliver adequate amount of learning opportunities to students irrespective of their locality and community as well as to devise sound establishments for teaching. By means of routine set of activities staff members of the college provides assistance to each other so that work can be completed with utmost effectiveness and efficiency. This plays a very significant role in motivating employees and raising their confidence level which will prove advantageous in their future development. Chances of conflicts are quite high as staff is of different personalities and culture which results in generation of problem in some situation (Holt and et.al., 2003).
Various types of activities in business enterprise are being affected by leadership as it is a capability of a leader to look for the same. In order to attain organizational aims and objectives in a stipulated framework of time, it is the first and foremost responsibility of a leader to monitor and direct work. There are number of styles which can be adopted by organization depending on the nature of work as well as of employees, such as:
Autocratic leadership style: In this course of action manager has the power to guide and provide directions to its employee. Little or no input has been taken from subordinate in decision making process (Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010).
Participative leadership style: It is also known as democratic style of leadership as ideas and suggestions which are being provided by subordinates are also being considered. This provides maximum customer satisfaction to employees as a result to which they perform better (Lee and Yu, 2004).
Laissez-faire leadership style: Freedom is being provided to the team so that they can accomplish their work in a way they want. Little guidance is provided by the leader as and when required along with resources (Rashid, Sambasivan and Rahman, 2004).
In City College, participative style of leadership is being followed. This is due to the fact that staff members are constantly encouraged to perform better and they can offer their suggestions as well. While, on the other hand, Rent-A-Car Enterprise is comparatively large organization and has various departments and sub department due to this different approaches to management has been followed by them. On the basis of convenience and nature styles of leadership is being adopted. This provides adequate outcomes and provides assistance in development of good leader for the company in the long run (Mail, Mohamed and Atan, 2006).
In order to manage persons at place of work business enterprise can make best possible use of Theory X and Y. On the basis of this study it has been found that there are a number of managers who are unable to use Theory X effectively as a result to which desired outcomes are not attained as compared to Theory Y which is much more effective (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008). It has been observed that managers tend to closely monitor performance level of employees in Theory X which is entirely based on authoritarian style. It is based on the assumption that by means of threats a person can do any work. This is due to the fact that individuals hate to take responsibility of any work. On the other hand, Theory Y states that without any sort of external control as well as supervision employees can grow and prosper within place of work (Powell and Stewart, 2004).
For the purpose of resolving any type of issue ample opportunities need to be provided for offering solutions for the same. As per the case study, it can be said that both the enterprises i.e., City College and Rent-A-Car follows Theory Y management style in their day to day routine set of activities so that employees can be motivated to perform better and creativity can be encouraged with utmost effectiveness and efficiency up to a certain extent (Hossan, Dixon and Brown, 2013). In the similar manner, customers can be provided with high satisfaction level as a result to which profitability ratio of business enterprises enhances without posing any difficulty. Employees feel free and important part of the organization as they have given opportunity to provide valuable views as well as suggestions for betterment of companies in long run (Brunsman, DeVore and Houston, 2011).
From the entire research, it can be articulated that structure along with culture of organization are helpful in carrying out effective functioning of business enterprise. This is because of the reason that motivation and leadership is being affected by means of this. For the purpose of taking effective decision City College and Rent-A-Car follows Theory Y management style so that goals and objectives can be attained in an effectual manner in the set period of time.
In the second part of the report case study of Egg and Woodrow is going to be discussed. Egg is an online bank which is famous for its innovation in financial services. Taylor Woodrow constructs houses for people. Various types of motivational theories will be studied which has been adopted by both business houses. In addition to this, range of methods and ways will be evaluated in order to develop effective team work within premises.
Motivational level of employees engaged at Egg and Woodrow can be affected by the range of leadership styles which are mentioned as under:
Autocratic style of leadership: Such type of leaders enjoys full control over their subordinates and can provide expected results when work needs to be completed in a set time period. Likewise, it proves beneficial in maintaining cordial working environment so that performance of the employees can be monitored (Iqbal, 2011). However, such type of strict check can deliver negative results in functioning of Egg and Woodrow. This is because of the reason that change needs to be carried out in such a way that it does not sign of resistance or else they will feel discouraged which will provide harmful impact on the functioning of business enterprise in long run. Empowering workforce will provide assistance in motivating them as a result to which they can work beyond their potential and deliver exceptional results in near future (Landy and Conte, 2010).
Participative style of leadership: This style of leadership provides assistance to employees in delivering their views in decision making process. By means of this they give their best so that organizations can attain success in a long run and able to gain competitive advantage over their rivals. Positive results will be observed in case if any changes need to be carried out in Egg and Woodrow which will lead to the enhancement in productivity along with profitability ratio of business enterprises. As per the case study, it has been found that both companies truly believe in participative approach for the purpose of creating positive working environment (Inamori, Analoui and Kakabadse, 2012).
Laissez-faire style of leadership: Every single right along with power has been exhibited by boss to his employees so that without any type of intervention workforce can accomplish their given set of duties and responsibilities efficiently. By means of this existing workforce of Egg and Taylor Woodrow will be able to carry out their work by imposing their imagination as well as creativity which will improve their functioning (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
With the help of motivation greater amount of enthusiasm can be generated in employees as a result of which goals and objectives can be achieved in a set framework of time. There exists range of motivational theories which can be adopted by business enterprises such as Egg and Woodrow. It has been observed that motivational theory of Elton Mayo and McClelland’s (Willmott and Knights, 2007). Elton Mayo states that social relationships along with money are needed by the organization so that they can maintain positive and cordial working relations by teams and management. This proves advantageous in attaining higher amount of satisfaction level. Communication, involvement and working in teams are factors which have been identified by Mayo in order to inspire employees (Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010).
In business enterprise every single activity which has the capacity to provide motivation in workforce has been applied. In the similar manner, McClelland’s human relation theory has also being followed by Egg by means of which it has been categorized its workforce on the basis of this. For the purpose of attaining something people will put all his efforts which will prove to be a great use for Egg (Holt and et.al., 2003). On the other side, Woodrow has been following Vroom Expectancy theory in order to strike a balance between valance and expectancy. According to this, rewards are being provided to the employees on the basis of their performance level. This proves beneficial in exerting best efforts on the side of staff as a result to which positive outcomes can be attained (Lee and Yu, 2004).
By means of applying motivational approaches of McClelland and Elton Mayo number of benefits has been derived by business enterprise such as Egg. This is due to the fact that both of them are concerned with maintaining sound human relations for the purpose of ensuring success. With the help of employees participation in decision making process which leads to satisfied and inspired workforce (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013). It is the first and foremost duty of the management to allocate powers to employees so that they can give their best in delivering change at place of work in order to attain maximum level of inspirational level. Egg workers&; have become competent enough and can work without posing any sort of difficulty (Valencia, Jimenez and Valle, 2011).
McClelland’s theory has provided&; assistance in determining performance level of the employees so that rewards can be presented on the basis of that. It is a bank and quite famous for its participative nature. With the help of this they will be able to carry out their functioning as per the needs and wants of service users so that it can gain competitive advantage (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2008).
Taylor Woodrow has adopted Vroom Expectancy Theory for the purpose of motivating its employees. By means of this management will&; be able to compare standard performance of its employees with that of actual one so that accordingly rewards can be provided. Number of developmental programs can be organized so that organizational aims and objectives can be attained in a&; set period of time (Rashid, Sambasivan and Rahman, 2004).
Group is a association of personwho comes together for the purpose of sharing common aims and objectives. This can be attained by working together and by constantly making interaction. On the other hand, group behavior is a means in which person behave in a team which depends on&; the nature of group and environment. Range of approaches has been adopted by Egg and Taylor Woodrow for influencing group behavior (Mail, Mohamed and Atan, 2006). In this regard, know yourself; know your person is a technique which is being devised by Egg in order to develop good working relations between employee and administration. It has been observed that focus is paid on behavior of groups which has been carried out by establishing goals for every single employee. This is because of the reason that this will provide assistance in gaining knowledge of actions which will be&; required to attain expected results within set period of time (Powell and Stewart, 2004).
By means of this targets will be allotted to business enterprise such as Egg on the basis of which level of motivation can be maintained. Woodrow has used performance management method for affecting overall behavior of employees so that on the basis of group performance rewards can be decided (Zhong, 2013). Employees desire to measure their own performance due to which they prefer objective standard instead of subjective. Increment in salary is being provided on the basis of performance along with this adoption of leadership and motivational approach is also dependent on this. For instance, leaders exert pressure and strictness on employees than worker will not be able to make best use of their creativity and imagination (Brunsman, DeVore and Houston, 2011).
Team work plays a very significant role in attaining success of business enterprise so that targets of Egg and Woodrow can be achieved within stipulated period of time. Some of the factors are enumerated as under:
Communication: By means of sound and two way communication, employees will become competent enough to express their views and suggestions freely to the management. This will prove beneficial in carrying out effective functioning of the organizations such as Egg and Taylor Woodrow (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
Leadership: Leaders are the ones who provides direction as well as guidance to their subordinates as a result to which organizational aims can be achieved without posing any difficulty. For the purpose of maintaining suitable and appropriate team work at Egg and Taylor Woodrow, it is essential on their part to make best possible use of approaches of measuring performance of the entire team. This will provide assistance in deciding upon rewards so that workers can be motivated to perform their best (Hossan, Dixon and Brown, 2013).
Clear set of roles: Clear along with well defined role plays a very crucial role in solving issues such as conflicts and grievances in Egg and Taylor Woodrow. In order to carry out this, they can use defining role approach in order to improve their profit maximization in a long run (Landy and Conte, 2010).
Mutual trust: By carrying out entire course of action in a coordinated manner, trust can be gained on both parts i.e., management and workers of business enterprise. In order to attain this open and friendly environment it is required which will encourage innovative and creative thinking on their part (Holt and et.al., 2003).
By applying above mentioned elements goals will be achieved with utmost effectiveness and efficiency. But on the flip side, there exist some of factors which acts as a barrier for the same, such as:
Unclear objectives: In case if aims are not clear and unrealistic in nature than workers will find difficulty in working in right direction. As per case study, Egg and Woodrow has set well defined goals which have provided assistance in attainment of targets with the help of team efforts (Inamori, Analoui and Kakabadse, 2012).
Lack of involvement on the part of management: It is the sole responsibility of a manager to inspire their subordinates along with providing guidance on regular basis to them so that desired outcomes can be attained. In regard to this, supervisors of Egg and Taylor Woodrow are required to control and supervise entire team activity so that work can be carried out effectually (Valencia, Jimenez and Valle, 2011).
Technology has played an important role in the success as well as functioning of Egg and Woodrow. Egg is an online bank and by means of technology it carries out services and provides satisfaction to the service users. It has been found that technology involves positive and negative aspects, some of them are enumerated as under:
Saves time and cost: With the help of technology, great amount of convenience is being provided to the customers by saving immense time as well as cost. In the recent time, by means of this Egg has now providing its financial services by using internet. This has proved beneficial in saving cost incurred on furniture and maintenance of office. Likewise, Taylor Woodrow can also endorse and advertize its services through creating online websites (Ara, 2013).
Adequate functioning of work: Organizations can install some of very useful softwaressuch as database management system (DBMS), in order to maintain proper flow of work. This will provide assistance to business enterprises such as Egg and Taylor Woodrow to maintain proper record of work which is being performed by management (Willmott and Knights, 2007).
Attributing facts from above mentioned research report of AUS Assignment Help, it can be rightly stated that motivation plays a very significant role in enhancing existing levels of performance for existing workforce of Egg and Taylor Woodrow. Organizations can adopt number of ways and methods which will inspire employees to perform better as a result to which company will be able to attain desired outcomes within stipulated period of time. In the similar manner, with the help of using new and improvised technology management of organizations can work with great efficiency which acts as an added advantage for further growth and development of business enterprise in a long run.