Introduction

Infection diseases are affecting the health of the human as well as create the negative impact on the economic conditions of a country. The infectious diseases are caused by the various types of viruses, parasites etc (Nelson and Williams, 2014). These diseases can be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to the other person. Some infections are directly transmitting from the ill or dead animals to the human being. The report is explaining the public health impact after the Ebola in Africa. This disease destroys the various lives of the people and lowering down the economic growth of Africa.

The people who are living in the infected areas of Africa are not getting proper treatments (Bennett, Dolin and Blaser, 2014). The following report explains the brief introduction of the Ebola and its outbreak in Africa. Another part of this research report states the effects of this disease on health of people on at the time of outbreak, mortality and morbidity rate if local people, the initiatives of Africa government to stop this disease, the impact of government on public health in the form of positive and negative and some required important suggestions to stop this disease from the again outbreak in Africa in near future.

TASK 1

1.1Introduction of Ebola disease outbreak in Africa

Infection is invasion on organism's body tissues by which disease causing agents entering into the human body. The reactions and multiplication of diseases causing agents with body organism's tissues produce the infectious diseases (Mackenzie, Jeggo, Daszak and Richt, 2013). These diseases are also called transmissible or communicable diseases. The diseases agents are may be viruses, viroid’s, bacteria, nematodes etc. The body tissues fight with these infection diseases with the help of immune system of a human body.



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The following research report is describing the infectious diseases and their effects of the human health and community of a particular country. Ebola is an infection disease which is spreading due to Ebola virus (Hewlett and Hewlett, 2007). This virus is known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever and it is transmitted to the human body from wild animals. When a person comes in the contact with the blood, organs, secretions, organs and other body fluids of infected animals like monkeys, chimpanzees, forest antelope, gorillas which has found ill or dead in a the forest.

Ebola virus disease has breakdown in West Africa in March, 2014. This disease was first discovered in 1976 when it was first outbreak in two areas simultaneously, one area was Nzara, Sudan and other area was Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo (Sircus, 2014.). In the 2014, the outbreak of Ebola has spread between the various countries and due this, there have been more cases of infections and death can be seen easily. The mostly affected areas of West Africa from Ebola diseases are Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The reason behind the wide effect of Ebola is very weal health system, lack of human and infrastructural resources and instability and conflicts between the different political parties (Vidal, 2015). After the investigation and research it has found that there are five species of Ebola virus have been identified: Zaire, Sudan, Tai forest, Bundibugyo and Reston. Among the three have been outbreaks in Africa. The outbreak of Ebola in West Africa has due to the Zaire species (Mabey, Gill, Weber and et.all., 2013).

Still there is a no evidence find about the outbreak starts of Ebola but it is believed that is transmitting to a human body by contact with an infected animal body fluids. From the various source of information it has found that more than 11179 people of West Africa have been marked died from Ebola. The numbers of people are total death in West Africa's different areas and reported cases have been more than 27,730 (Hand, 2015). These figures and factors is raising fears in the community of the other countries as well as those areas of Africa which are still count in safe zone from the Ebola virus.

Task 2

2.1 Impact on public health after the infectious disease Ebola in Africa in March, 2014.

Ebola outbreak in Africa in March, 2014 and it affects human health. This outbreak began in December, 2013 in Guinea and then spread in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This whole scenario has reported in March, 2014 (Garrett, 2014). In the beginning time, the doctors and practitioners consider the starting symptoms of Ebola as a normal fever. But these symptoms grows and seen in various people in large volume than it has identified as an Ebola virus. The death rate has increased day by day and the cases of the Ebola suffering patients also increased (Passerini, 2006).

In this context, West Africa which has never and ever experienced and expected the Ebola outbreak, has not fully prepared for this unfamiliar situations. When doctors has early detected the first case of Ebola in Africa than they were not in a situations to manage the various resources such as medical kits, medicines, laboratory, expert doctors and other medical staffs and expertise (Issahaku and Neysmith, 2013). This was the major upheaval in social and economic conditions of Africa and people could not understand this thing.

This was the new form of Ebola which rapidly growing and easily spread from one human to the other. From the result, the behaviour and impact of Ebola virus on public health was totally different (Dworkin, 2010). It damaged the public health infrastructures of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia because these countries are very poor in the world. The various services such as road system, telecommunication, transportation services are in these countries are week because they are count in the rural areas (Preston, 2012). These weaknesses greatly delayed the sending the Ebola patients to the good treatment centres and the samples to laboratories and due to this, it increase the death rate of people. Another factor which increased the death rate in West Africa is the shortage of health care workers. In these three Ebola infected areas, the total population is about 100,000 and only two to three doctors has appointed in these areas (Shetty, Tang and Andrews, 2009). Most of the health workers have not taking the interest in taking care of infected Ebola patients and due to this, about 800 people were infected at the end of the year and more than the half of them has died. Since January, 2015, more than 5, 000 people in West Africa have killed due to the Ebola (Stimola, 2010).

The impacts of Ebola on public health at the time of spreading the disease are only fewer people have seeking formal medical attentions because of fear of being exposed to the disease (Public health England, 2015). The weakening health of the people and poor medical services in West Africa has allows the incidence of the other complex and serious diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, etc which may increase the death rate of Africa due to Ebola and various diseases.

2.2 Mortality and morbidity rate of local people in Africa due to Ebola virus

As per the research, it has found that in the 3 December, 2014, 17,111 Ebola cases has been found in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia countries. More than 6,055 deaths due to Ebola disease have been reported. The mortality rates in these three countries are as follows.

Guinea: 1327 people have been died out of the 2164 population. In the percentage form, this ratio has 61%.

Sierra Leone: 1583 people death has been recorded out of the 7312 and the percentage is 22%.

Liberia: 3145 people have been died out of the 7635. The percentage of died people has 41%.

The average mortality rate from Ebola virus died people in these three countries is 35%. These three areas has some common characteristics like a recent civil war, political fragility and weakened institutional capacity of good medical health care. On the other hand, in Mali, there have been eight case of Ebola has recorded in January, 2015 in which six cases has related to the death from Ebola virus (Socio Economic impacts of the Ebola Virus disease in Africa, 2014).

TASK 3

3.1 Initiatives taken by organization body for management of Ebola disease

The effect of Ebola in Africa is worst ever and there are no signs of under control the situation (Rohwerder, 2014). The first case of Ebola were recorded in Guinea and other cases were reported later in different other countries of Africa. The infected countries are Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia and all are having the poor infrastructural as well poor quality of life. But the African government are struggling in response to Ebola and not able to provide the complete treatments because of different conflicts between the different political parties. Ebola is not new for the Africa and there are various ways find by the medical science to segregate the infected areas and stopped the spreading of virus (Adegun, 2014).

But in Africa, people in these three infected areas has isolated from the treatments. The health policies and various medical cares are in three infected areas are very poor. The government response on the Ebola effects on public health is no much good and helping the people to protect from the viruses (Nelson and Williams, 2014). The reason behind the weak policies of health and social care of West Africa are geographical and financial barriers. These policies are only fruitful for those people who are able to afford the good treatments. So to provide the equal quality of treatments to every person in infected areas, the initiatives has taken by local ministries of health of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone as well as WHO and many other international organisations body (Bennett, Dolin and Blaser, 2014).

The major challenge in providing the complete treatments of public health problem is coordinating in the infected areas (Sircus, 2014). But, it is required to accept the challenges and lead the response. These response and initiatives has taken by local ministries of infected countries and various national and international organisations and the result are comes in the positive way. The major initiative has taken by WHO which is the international organisation and providing the various medical services and guidelines to the different medical centres (Vidal, 2015).

At the time of emerging of Ebola in Africa, WHO organized an emergency meeting with the various countries and declared an important and major collaboration to keep control on spreading the Ebola in other areas of Africa and other contents (Mabey, Gill, Weber and et.all., 2013). Another aim of this collaboration was providing the complete and excellence treatments to the infected Ebola persons. For This, WHO has publishes a guide map and a plan to stops the Ebola transmission in worldwide areas. A 90 days plan has prepared by WHO to control the effects of Ebola epidemic.

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The aim of this plan was, to isolate the Ebola cases in Africa and safely bury those people who have been died from Ebola virus (Hand, 2015). The result of this 90 days plan has seen in January, 2015, where WHO hit its goal and success to control the Ebola effects in infected areas by keep these place isolation and safely buries the death bodies. Many countries, NGO's and other charitable organisations cooperate and support the WHO in this plan. After the efforts of WHO, from the beginning of January, 2015 there are fewer cases seen of Ebola in Africa and other nations (Garrett, 2014).

Another organisation body which has taken the initiative in the direction of controlling the Ebola in West Africa is UNDP (Passerini, 2006). Due to Ebola epidemic in West Africa, it’s slower the speed of the life of the people, orphaning the children and decimating communities of Africa. This disease makes a reason of death of the people and affects the economics of the continent. Therefore to control this disease as soon as possible, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) takes some initiatives. The focus of this international organisation is on three segments which are as follows (Issahaku and Neysmith, 2013).

Coordination and service delivery: UNDP try to provide the various medical services to the Africa and help in getting the job to the Ebola infected persons in various areas. By improving the system of delivering the medical and health care services to the people, appoint the treatments centre staff in infected areas, burial team, contacts tracer etc (Dworkin, 2010).

Community mobilization and outreach: To start working the infected areas of Africa, UNDP create the important contacts with local communities and build a team of different members including leader, volunteers to find the cases of infected people from Ebola. Another work of UNDP is educating the people about diseases and creating the awareness (Preston, 2012). The aim of these education events is to let them people about reasons and ways of transmitting and spreading the Ebola virus in human being and how to avoid contracting it. From these efforts of the UNDP, the people are now becomes more aware and takes the precautions.

Socio-economic impact and recovery: After the impact of Ebola on Africa and control, the most important part is recovery from the effects of Ebola. This disease affects the economic condition of the Africa and also affects the community (Shetty, Tang and Andrews, 2009). The people have not given the respects to Ebola infected persons and such persons isolated from the society. But the efforts of UNDP change the mind-set of the people and this change gives the confidence to Ebola infected people to live a normal life in the community (Stimola, 2010).

On the other hand, UNDP also formulate the recovery plan for giving the strength to Africa economy. It provides the large amount of funds to the African government and helps the healthier people in getting the jobs. On the other side, UNDP also gives welfare payments to those communities who are seriously affecting from the Ebola, families who lost their family members / relatives and the orphaned children ((Public health England, 2015). This welfare helps the people to complete their basis necessity and best treatments.

TASK 4

4.1 Recommendations which can protect the society of Africa from the Ebola in future

The initiatives taken by African government are not helpful for the people. The policies are not giving the advantages infected Ebola persons and do not protect the society from this attack in future (Rohwerder, 2014). From the discussion in the above task, it has cleared that government is not able to give the compete treatments of Ebola and stop this diseases from spreading in the other areas. There are some financial and geographical barriers that stop the central government of Africa to help its infected countries (Adegun, 2014). After this, the various national and international health care organisations take the initiatives to control and stop this disease as soon as possible. After the efforts of these organisations, the change has taken place. People are now more aware about the Ebola, its impacts on the human body, precautions to get the protection from Ebola virus etc (Nelson and Williams, 2014). The social condition of the Africa increased as well as the economic conditions of infected areas also improved. The result from this is the some cases related to the Ebola are rarely reported. The research on the infected areas of Ebola in Africa, it has found that the public health is improving and outbreak of this disease will be end very soon (Bennett, Dolin and Blaser, 2014). The control actions and medical care facilities of WHO and UNDP helps in reducing the number of infected people. The most advance sample testing laboratories and the perfect medical care improve in prevention from the disease and help in detection of the Ebola virus so that the infected person can get the care on right time and minimize the impact of virus on human health (Mackenzie, Jeggo, Daszak and Richt, 2013).

There are some recommendations providing here with protect African society from Ebola in the future. The recommendations are as follows.

  • African government and various national countries of Africa should ensure that all infected people get the complete and right treatments as soon as possible. The various medical facilities should also provide to the people who prevent them from the new infections and diseases (Hewlett and Hewlett, 2007).
  • Government should also implied the policies in a strict way related to the burial protocols this burial formalities should be done by the train person which will helps in avoiding the further contamination from the infected dead bodies (Sircus, 2014).
  • African government should find out such leaders and volunteers in the continent who can takes the initiatives for controlling, stopping the spreading of Ebola and can work in infected areas easily without any discrimination in infected people (Vidal, 2015).
  • Government should also take the initiatives and various collaboration from the national and international medical and health care organisations to collecting the various data and prepare a strategies so that which helps in improving the social and economic conditions of the continent (Mabey, Gill, Weber and et.all., 2013).
  • Government should gather data of infected people and died people from the Ebola in the three major infected areas and apply some isolation methods to stop the spreading of Ebola virus in the other countries of Africa.
  • Government of Africa should develop a system which helps in tracking the morbidity rate in infected areas of Africa and able to provide the various medical services. This system also helps in tracking the health care services in the Ebola infected areas (Hand, 2015). This helps in providing the medical care at early stage of Ebola infection.
  • Africa should explore some innovative strategies related to the financial aspects and mobilize the domestic resources to develop a complete care of Ebola infected people (Garrett, 2014).
  • The various medical practitioners and medical and health care people should adopt the good practices for controlling the infections from infected people to the other person. The personal protective equipment’s should be used in finding the risk and its level of effect in a person (Passerini, 2006).
  • With the help of good and hygiene protocols to avoid the exposer from infected blood and body fluids of animals and infected people. The death bodies of Ebola infected persons should be placed in the isolation environment so that it did not come with the contact with the other people (Issahaku and Neysmith, 2013).
  • The workers who may sprayed, splashed and spattered the blood and body from the environmental surface, they should wear the protection cloths such as aprons, fluid resistance protective clothing, full face shield or surgical mask etc which cover the face, eyes and other body parts of workers.
  • The disposal of the dyed bodies, waste of the human being, Ebola infected medical kits etc should be in a proper way so that is will not create the negative impact on human body as well as community (Dworkin, 2010). These things should be treated with various medicines and properly packed in the bags.

Various health organisations should give the training to their health and care officers about the sources of Ebola exposure and the required and appropriate precautions. They should also give the training to the practitioners about the use and handle the personal protective equipment’s and the ways of disposing the blood and other potentially infectious ingredients (Preston, 2012).

Conclusion

From the above report, it can be concluded that Ebola is a most infectious diseases and it affects the human being health. This disease is transmitting from ill or died animal blood and body fluids and when it comes with the contact in human person, it enters in person body. Ebola has outbreak in March 2014 and destroy the life’s various people. The thousand cases of the death and infected people from Ebola virus has recorded. The three infected areas of West Africa are Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. These areas are counts in the poor countries and they have very deprived conditions of medical and health care services. These areas are not connecting with the urban zones of Africa and there are also two to three doctors on thousands of population. The initiatives of African government have not that much affecting and helpful people. The policies of the government have only available to those people who are able to pay a good amount for treatment. Than WHO, UNDP and other local, national and international organization start a mission to control and stop Ebola from spreading in other regions. The efforts of these organization bodies give the positive results and now Ebola at the end of controlling. The various recommendations are also giving which helps African government to protect the community from the attack of Ebola in near future.

References

  1. Nelson, K. and Williams, C., 2014. Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
  2. Hewlett, B. and Hewlett, B., 2007. Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease. Cengage Learning.
  3. Sircus, M., 2014. Treating Ebola and Other Infectious Diseases With Natural Allophatic Medicine. Lulu Press, Inc.
  4. Vidal, Y., 2015. How to Prevent the Spread of Ebola: Effective Strategies to Reduce Hospital Acquired Infections. Lara Publications Inc.
  5. Mabey, D., Gill, G., Weber, M. and et.all., 2013. Principles of Medicine in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
  6. Hand, C., 2015. Epidemiology: The Fight Against Ebola & Other Diseases: The Fight Against Ebola and Other Diseases. ABDO.
  7. Garrett, L., 2014. Ebola: Story of an Outbreak. Hachette UK.
  8. Passerini, K., 2006. The power of alliances: the case of the Ugandan Infectious Diseases Institute initiative. Society and Business Review.
  9. Dworkin, M., 2010. Outbreak Investigations Around the World. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  10. Preston, R., 2012. The Hot Zone: The Terrifying True Story of the Origins of the Ebola Virus. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
  11. Stimola, A., 2010. Ebola. The Rosen Publishing Group.

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