One of the most important functions of an organization is that of human resource management which enables a corporation to have relevant personnel to the organization according to the requirement of job.Apart from this, the department is also responsible for making the workforce contended and to retain them. The present report focuses on various aspects of the human resource management like different learning styles for adult learning,types of training as well as their importance. Also, discussion is being made on the way in which training program can be well planned within an organization.The company that is taken for the purpose of current report is Apple Inc. which is a US based multimedia firm with having major positions in the market of mobile phones, laptops and I phones.
On the basis of four adult learners that have been selected from Apple Inc, it has been found that they possess varied learning styles. Some adults were visual learners in terms of the fact that they had a huge preference for seeing. They could be taught easily by making use of methods such as graphs, charts, diagrams and symbols. Visual aids could further be used so as to enhance their overall learning. There was also a presence of employees who were auditory learners.They grasped things easily on account of listening to lectures, discussions as well as papers (Aladwan, 2014). While, the employees in technical department had a preference towards Tactile/kinesthetic learning. Here, they showed their overall learning by experience. Such employees using this learning style may also enhance their learning through touch of machines or equipments used at Apple.It was in terms of actively exploring the world, doing science projects as well as carrying out experimentations.
Learning curve plays a significant role in making the employees capable enough to effectively manage the various activities of business of Apple. The concept of learning curve is based on the productivity of operational activities and time so that management becomes aware of the various positive and negative aspects of each and every action that is taken within the organization. Slowly as the employees and management of Apple get to know about the various processes, the learning curve helps in increasing efficiency of workforce and productivity as well thereby reducing the costs for company. Apart from this, learning curve also assist in ensuring an effective allocation of resources and thus have an increase in return (Bhattacharyya, 2009).
Transferring of learning to the workplace is also an important aspect of Apple so as to accomplish various objectives of the organization. Through this process, knowledge and capability of employees is enhanced which further help in increasing the productivity of workforce. Transference of learning also helps in the delivery of good quality of services to customers thus increasing the rate of return. Learning styles like visual and auditory can be transferred at the workplace through presentations, notices and conferences (Goss-Turner and Boella, 2013).
Learning styles and theories also contributes a lot while planning and designing for an event that is associated with that of learning. In this context, the model of David A. Kolb's is apt and so implemented through which human resource management of Apple can be able to understand the way in which learning styles contribute towards increased learning of employees and thus the productivity. The model is built on the basis of experiential learning theory which consists of some components (Clardy,2008). This includes an active experimentation and concrete experience that is followed by reflective observation and abstract conceptualization.The model also assists the management of Apple so that they can respond in a variety of situations so that personnel becomes capable of producing innovative products and deliver effective services.Four different types of learning styles are formed on the basis of the four approaches. These learning styles are the ones that enable the staff of Apple to increase their knowledge and skills (Felstead and et al. 2007).
Following are the learning styles that helps in planning of a learning event -
There is a presence of three different organizational level in apple where training is to be provided. These are supportive staff members, employees and management.Managers need to understand why training is required and how it can be met with a variety of training methods.
1.Supportive staff members – They require training related to taking care of the small stuff within company. This is in terms of cleaning, providing tea, coffee etc. Hence the training needs is very limited and may not take much time (Pablos, 2004).
2.Employees – The training needs of employees is dependent on the area of work experitse. For example, those working in Hr department of Apple may need training related handing of employee grievance, maintaining salary record. In the same way, Apple being a technology based firm has got a presence of many technical staff members. Here the training need is as per the work type and the level of experience present time.
3.Management -The managers are their to manage various departments in Apple such as HR,IT,Operational and development (Teo and et.al., 2008). The managerial team requires training in the area of how they group the employees as per their ability and skill. staff recruitment training can also be provided to them accordingly.
There is a presence of many training methods that are used in Apple. These are classroom, On and Off the job training . Every method has got its own set of advantages and disadvantages that have been discussed below.
Classroom training: Apple uses classroom training method where it teaches employees in safe,quite,clean environment,away from the noise and pressure of the work area. Training groups can be large and small. Group interaction enhances learning. Employees learn from one another as well as from the trainer. It also teaches how to interact in professional and cooperative way which is something that other forms of training do not provide.Its disadvantages are that staff have to put employees off which cuts their work time and production schedules (Ci-sheng and Shu-ming, 2012). Shifts are often hard to run in such kind of training especially during nights.
On the job training : Trainer do not have to pay a training company or college. Highly skilledemployees who are in the senior positions can teach new staff the exact skills they need for a particular job. The business can acquire an inhouse skilled team. Disadvantages are that productivity can be interupted (On the Job Training - Pros and Cons, 2015).
Off the job training :This type of training in Apple makes employees go away from their work enviroment to the place where their frustrations are eliminated .This provides for a more relaxed environment, which can help employees to absorb more information as they feel less under pressure to perform .Disadvantage is that the overall cost of Apple could prove quite expensive. For example many courses may require an overnight stay at hotel area or the course may itself prove to be expensive due to the level of expertise and equipment needed (Sett, 2011).
A training and development programme in Apple involves a fair amount of work and money.For a new staff, a training process is necessary so they can start their jobs with some idea of what they are supposed to do and how to do it.
Analysing training needs:
Finding out what people need to learn this is done by:
Designing training strategy :
It is required to decide on a strategy to meet training needs in Apple. For example, Apple can design course modules for suggesting various methodologies, deciding key learning points trainees must grasp and also sending some learning material (Minniti,2008).
Implementing training strategy :
Putting the training into practice.This process can help us to identify the role of the personnel responsible for organising the training and implementing the training policy in Apple.
Evaluating training strategy:
Any training strategy have to first identify the target groups assessing their training needs .Training managers of Apple provide course report which contains programme ,participants list and course evaluation .It is taken into account training material,instructor performance and general arrangements .Managers are also responsible for follow up of individual process maintaining the training register so that all the participants are registered (Meager, 2009)
Apart from formulating a training plan, it is quite important to apply appropriate techniques in order to evaluate the training plan that has implemented. One of the techniques through which it can be evaluated is feedback and taking responses from those who are involved in training so as to know the extent to which training has helped in increasing their proficiencies and skills. Apart from this, method of questionnaire is also a useful technique with which evaluation of training plan that is being applied can be done at Apple (Dimba, 2010). Through this, interpretation can also be made regrading need of training by the staff of company. In addition to this, observation is also an another technique through which effectiveness of training can be known by the management of Apple. Through this, direct observation can be done and further improvements can be made by the organization as well. In addition to this, log of record of each day of training can also be made to be maintained by the employees of Apple so that proper review of the training plan can thus be made (Qing and Ling, 2014).
The training plan that is mentioned above can be evaluated further by the management of Apple by making use of the method of questionnaire. This method enables the seniors to have one to one interaction with the employees under the training plan and are being given training sessions. The questionnaire can include both open and close ended questions which can be presented before the workers so that they can give proper responses to the questions and also express their views freely as well. This is a suitable method through which efficiency of training program can be known and ways in which further improvements can be made are known (Meager, 2009). The method of questionnaire can also enable to maintain proper records of those under training plan and with their responses lacking areas can also be known as well. Apart from this, this technique of evaluation also enable the management of Apple to gather huge amount of useful information regarding their training event and further improve skills of employees as well as their productivity as well (Minniti, 2008).
The process through which the training plan is evaluated is quite significant for the management of Apple. Evaluation helps in assuring that all available resources have been applied in order to enhance the skills of employees at the place. The use of method of questionnaire is quite effective as it provides proper feedback from the employees regarding the training plan. Also, this method enable the company to take proper decisions and steps in order to enhance the quality of products as well as the services in order to satisfy the customers and increase sales (Sheehan,2005). This is also an effective method in increasing the overall competitive edge of Apple against the competitors. This is because through questionnaire further improvements in the training program can be made which eventually would increase the productivity of workforce of Apple. However, it can be said that evaluation method of training is not always effective as it is not feasible to see long term impact of training rather it shows only the short term or immediate impact. But still, on the other side, evaluation method also enables Apple to increase and expand its business all over the globe (Stephen and et. al., 2008).
The government of UK is quite particular in training and enhancing the skills as well as knowledge of adults thus pay special attention on their training and lifelong learning as well. The ministry is responsible in UK and is known as Minister of State for Further Education, Skills and Lifelong Learning. There are a number of European policies that are being put in place by the UK government so that level of education of people is enhanced. Various learning programs are started by the UK government so that skills of adults are regularly updated which eventually proves to be beneficial (Gannon and et.al., 2012). A benchmark is even set that requires at least 15% of the adults to be included in lifelong learning. With this management of council, all adults have the right to get an access to lifelong learning and this also includes several elements where there is cost sharing. Apart from this, UK government has also made amendments to adults regarding their right to demand for training after working for six months. Also, the agencies has also identified training and lifelong learning for people who are homeless, drug users, refugees and also those who need special care and support (Sett,2011). In addition to this, UK Commission is also responsible for making provision for employment for those sections which require the most.
Competency movement refers to the one through which there is development of skills or competencies of workers while conducting their management activities within the organization. It helps them to improve the way of working or doing other activities thus increasing the productivity which further results in raising the productivity. Competency movement is one of the active efforts that are made by the government in order to enhance the development of management and thus, has an impact on both private and public sectors (Ci-sheng and Shu-ming, 2012). Within public sector, this movement is a way of removing barriers that stops the personnel in public sector from involving in training and development as well as in lifelong learning. It is also used for imparting training to workers in public sector and training program do not have a pre defined time plan also. Apart from this, competency movement is also quite effective in the private sector as well where it enables the management of organizations to increase their learning and manage the various activities in an enhanced manner (Competence and competency frameworks, 2015). It also helps in improving the technical know how of the workers so that they can work with more perfection.
There are a number of training initiatives that is introduced by the government of UK so that it can ensure the development of human resources and result in their life long learning as well. For this, there has been introduced a number of policies and training programs by the government bodies. The Learning Skills Council (LSC) is responsible for involving a huge mass of people in training and making them learn till the year 2010. Through this, it would be possible for UK to achieve the large pool of personnel having good amount of competencies (Learning and Skills Council, 2015). In this line, there is also Connexios Services which is a service for front line support staff involving the young ones of age 13-19 years. This includes efforts in removing barriers in their learning and thus, increasing the number of skills. In addition to this, Skills Strategy is also one of the efforts that are put in by the government for development of human resources in the country. This also provides training to the individuals within firms to impart all the necessary skills so that UK stands as one of the best economies (Gannon, Doherty and Roper, 2012).
From the present report, it can be concluded that human resource development is quite important for corporations all over the world. An important aspect of this development is training and life long learning of the adults or the employees who work within the organizations over the globe. The report also concludes that there are a number of efforts that are being taken by the management of the companies in order to enhance the learning of the staff and also their skills by conducting various training programs at various times. In addition to this, the UK government also make a number of efforts in order to increase the number of individuals having large number of skills and inculcate life long learning within them.
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