INTRODUCTION

Human Resource Management is crucial for the organization as it helps in increasing level of outcome of employees. Through this organization can achieve the long terms goals in an effective way. The responsibility of human resource management is to recruit the best candidate, manage the employees, providing them training and development. In hospitality industry the employees play an important role as they provide direct services to the customers. These are important elements of marketing mix so it is important to in them in business. The present report aims to understand the role of human resource management in hospitality industry.

Role and purpose of human resource management in hospitality industry

Human resource management is directly associated with long term goal of the organization a and its employees.It aims at improving performance of organization through developing the culture. In respect with hospitality industry human resource management helps in increasing success and developing employee’s potentials. This can lead to high performance of individuals. The major purpose of HRM is to prepare an implement the policies regarding to recruiting, selecting, appreciating employees, etc. Every organization wants to have qualified people at workplace and it can be possible through effective HRM policies.It helps in making effective use of resources and reducing the wastage of the same. In order to use personnel resources and achieve the long term organizational goals and to make the employees more efficient and to retain them (Agarwal, 2002).

Employee motivation: With the help of human resource management in the organization employees can be motivated towards better performance. In case employees are provided with better services than they can be retained at work for a long time. The major role of HRM is to make policies so that employees can be motivated and become loyal towards the company. In this way works can be retained at work. In hospitality industry employee motivation is must as it lead to provide satisfactory services to customers and create brand loyalty.

Recruitment of skilled workforce: To recruit and select a best candidate at the workplace, the role of HRM is crucial. The right people can be selected for the right place. The HR department prepare the job description and prelate the list of qualities and skills that are needed in a candidate for post. Having an effective selection process management can access a qualified candidate for the write place.

Increase in performance: The major task of HRM department is to arrange training for the people. It helps in improving the skills of individuals so that they can perform well. In hospitality industry people are trained so that they can provide better service to guests. Through training and development programmers individual performance can be improved, that can lead to increase organizational performance (Biswas, Srivastava and Giri, 2002).

Active participation of employees: HRM plays an important role in increasing employee participation. All the policies are developed in the organization while keeping the views of employees. They are properly communicated with the task an are to be fulfilled by them. Through such initiatives taken by management active participation of employees in management activities can be achieved.

Maintaining Work Atmosphere- the HRM department of organization has an important role in developing and managing work environment. Through developing effective work related policies the employees can be motivated to work effectively. It promotes positive and friendly behavior among the employees and management (Cooke, 2005).

Human resource plan based on analysis and supply and demand in hospitality industry

The major role of organization is to assess the present and future a need human resource at workplace. Human resource planning helps in development and requirement plan while controlling managerial activities. The following points represents the plan based on supply and demand analysis in respect with Marriott international:  

Resourcing strategy –The organization have to conduct resource planning so that competitive advantage can be achieved in the organization. It has to work upon intellectual capital. In needs to reduce the staff cost while improving s employee productivity.

Scenario planning – In-order to match the industry requirement as per environmental changes, organization has to conduct scenario planning.  Due to rapid change held in hospitality industry the organization has faced lot of challenges and to overcome them it has to conduct human resource planning (Ruël, 2011).

Demand / Supply forecasting – it refers to estimate the future demand of human resource in the organization.  It also relates to the skills required in the employees for the specify post. It has to access the availability of human resource within and outside the firm.   Further, to access the proper demand and supply is required so that competitive advantage cab be achieved.

Labour turnover analysis – The Company has to analysis the actual labour turnover figures and trends for making inputs in supply forecasts. The organization is following low cost strategy for that it has to analyse the actual labour turnover ratio.

Work situation analysis – Marriott has to access the environment (internal and external) in which people work.  It has to analysis the scope that the company provides to the people.  It relates to improve the job satisfaction so that they can be retained at the workplace.  

Resourcing – The processes of attracting, recruiting and high quality high quality staff is called as resourcing.  If the employees will provide high quality service to the customers they can be retained in business and organization can generate higher revenues.  Hence it can be said that to attract and retain high quality of staff is must (Srimannarayana, 2006).  

Retention – In Marriott international hotels employees retention is the biggest problem as the organization offers lower compensation.  In this way it is important for Marriott to apply retention strategies for human resource planning.  



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Flexibility –The employees are to be provided with flexible working hours.  The operations of hospitality industry are volatile so the organization needs to adopt flexibility.  For this it can approach towards multi-s killing, rapid re disposition, outsourcing and sub-contracting.  

Productivity – In order to increase productivity and to improve the performance employees it has to implement the plans.  The organization can attain the competitive advantage through its workers (Fileds, 2012).  

Work environment – Further the organization have to develop effective work environment so that employees can perform well.  It will increase employee commitment and job engagement which is essential for the organization along with hospitality industry.  

Access the current state of employment relations in hospitality industry   

Human resource management play an important role in developing employee retention. Employee relation is related to maintain good and better relation between employees and management. Employers have to develop relation with employees so that desired productivity can be achieved. This is also important to motivate the workers and improve their moral. This lead to prevent and resolve conflicts that can affect work situations (ltman, 2009). Following points represent the important elements of employee relationships in the organization  

  • To distinguish the right of  contractual and statutory employment  
  • To make effective communication between management and employees.
  • Avoid discrimination at the workplace.   
  • Develop the regulations of working times.
  • Terminate the contract of employees
  • Performance appraisal   

In the present business scenario, relationship between employees and employers has become crisis. The hospitality industry belongs to the service sector a hence employee relation play a major role for the organizations.  Motivation, employee productiveness, job satisfaction and all other areas relates to the employee relations which pay an important role in service sector. Therefore, it can be said that employment relations are essential in the hospitality industry.  From the time of establishment of hospitality industry the difference between contractual and statutory employment rights has been emerged. Every company operates in   this industry  aware with the  the importance  of employees rights  and  they are  following the rules .The regulators of  industry are  monitoring the practices of organizations  and the company  is providing employment as per  statutory requirements. All the business entities working in this field are  focusing towards  offering flexible working time, pay for overtime, maintaining work discipline and so on(What is a Human Resources Information System (HRIS). 2014) .  

The employee relations status of Marriott relates to the industry point of view and similar to other organization. The company focusing on providing best services to the customers at reasonable prices. To improve services experience of customer and to provide them effective and satisfactory services it has to motivate its employees. That can be possible through motivating them for better performance and making good employee relations.  Transparency in services and effectual policies are to be developed so employees motivation can be achieved (Manzoor, 2012).  

The employees need to be free to work in their own styles.  In addition to that they should be offered with flexible framework. Marriott offered various loyalty programmes to make employee relations.
Impact of employment laws on human resource management in hospitality industry.  

In respect with hospitality industry, number of employment laws have been developed that are essential to be followed. There are two major laws that impacts the operations of hospitality industry such as Employment Relations Act and Employment Rights Act. Both the acts have been proposed to protect the rights of employees. In addition to that they play an important role in developing and maintaining good relation between workers and employers. The aim of employment relations act is to discuss the actions of employers towards their employees. Further the responsibilities of workers   and manager have been discussed in this act. The rules related to termination of employment and personal grievance have been addressed.  The procedures and rule related to employee wages, working hours, benefits   are included such acts. Dismissal notice and reasons, unfair dismissal, redundancy payments and employer insolvency are the important criteria that are considered employment laws (Prasad, 2005).

The major aim of Marriott is to gain competitive advantages with the help of its employees.  In the service organization such as  Marriott the organization, employees play and impart role in attracting and retaining customers. In addition to that, business strategy of company is to achieve higher employee satisfaction and productivity. The employment laws restrict the company to offer illegal or unethical practices with its employees. The rights of human resources are to be protected. The employment acts are applicable in every field of management and activities related to workers.  In Marriott the employees are treated as an important part of organization so management care for its employees. The members of the organization are provided freedom to take part in activities of business. It provides fair wages and work based payment to the employees. In case the business does not care for the members   and conduct any illegal activity then legal actions can be taken against the company. The employees of Marriott have to work on Sundays even on occasion, in this way they are entitled to have overtime. All the candidates are to be provided with equal chance to be selected in the organization and there should not have any discrimination on the bases if age, culture, cast, gender and all. To full-fill all this requirements and provide better case to the employees employment right are paying major role. People of the company are to be treated equally and have to be provided with better career opportunities. By following the rules and regulations of employees act   the organization can control employee compensation costs. It enable employees to earn higher pay depend on their performance (Prince, 2011).  

Job description and personal specification for hospitality industry

Company - Marriott international  
Division - Customer Service  
Job Title- Receptionist  

Job Summary  

Receptionist play an important role in the organization as it ensures guest for satisfactory services. He / she take all the requirement of guest and communicate with the employees. The responsibility of handling inquiries of individual about reservations, booking information, room allotment and all (Regis, 2009).

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Key Responsibilities  

  • To provide  information to customers  for the  available rooms  and services
  • To arrange booking for clients  
  • Confirm client for their bookings
  • To communicate with the guests  
  • Checking guests  and booking new reservations at the hotel   
  • Handling guests quarries  
  • Assisting with announcements

The process of designing job descriptions  

The documents that describe the jobs and skilled to perform the job is called as Job description. There are various content included in the  jab description  such as job  identification, job summary, job duties, relation to other jobs, supervision, tools and materials and working conditions an all(George and Jones,  2008.). The following points represent the job specification and description to become a receptionist at Marriott hotel.   

Personal Profile (Job Specification)  

  • The age of receptionist is to 18 and above years.  
  • He / she is to be qualified from a reputed university  and have done graduation  
  • Previous  experience is counted
  • Willingness to work a flexible schedule
  • The person should be able to work under  stressful conditions  
  • He / she should have  maintain a sense of professionalism
  • Candidate must be from a  clear background
  • Medical test is to be conducted  before the employment offer
  • Dimensions / Context factors  
  • Location – Hotel premises  
  • Manner - Through telephone, computer and reservation system  
  • With whom – Clients and guests (He / she’s have to work with customer service executive and other service employees)  

Compare the selection process of different services industry business  

The objectives of selection is to hire a best candidate for the post. Having an effective and suitable policies a best talent pool can be hard at the workplace. There are various step of selection that are explained in below points:  

  • Application gathering   
  • Screening  
  • Taking interviews  
  • Tests  
  • Appointment letters  
  • Joining  

Above points are to be followed by all the organizations in a standards way.  Further, the organization have to use different kind of selection procedures at the time of recruiting candidates for different posts. These techniques depend on particular competencies that are required for the post. In the hospitality industry, there are number of employees such as shefs,   employees, bar attendant, receptionist are required therefore organization have to follow different selection policies (Ayeni, Tella, and Popoola, 2007). Qualifications are required for different position. The above given standard selection procedure are to be followed by the organization to select managers and supervisors.  

The employees do not required more competencies to perform their responsibility. Hence they are selected by the interview method. The selection procedure can vary from organization to industry to industry. Although in the service industry the procedure is also different .Lets have an example, the selection procedure of airline industry is differ from hotel industry although both are parts of service industry.  The worker in airline industry need to have specific skills, knowledge and attitude to work in the field on the other hand the workers of hotel should have different skills from airlines employees. The educational qualification and health requirements are also change as per the services. The employees such as pilots, flight engineers, and air traffic controller require technical knowledge on the other hand chefs and customer service agent should have aware with the policies of hospitality industry (ltman, 2009).  
Access the contribution of training and development activities in the effectiveness of hospitality industry     

In the effectiveness if organization Training and development are crucial. A well trained employee can offer better service to the customers and can make them retain in the organization.  Further, it put various implications in the field of productivity, personal development, health and safety at work and all.  

The employees hospitality organization  need to have knowledge about how to handle the customer in a better way  and  haw to manage the work on routine basis to achieve effectiveness(Artis, Becker and Huselid, 2013).  

Following points represent the effectiveness of training in Marriott international hotel.  

Increase Productivity -The training and development programmers provided to the employees will lead to improve their productivity.   It will also help in achieving long-term goal I for the organization. In this way it can gain competitive advantage while low cost offering.  

Development of employee skills – Through providing training to the employees the company can develop their skills so that they can understand the job   and its importance.  In this way they can be provided with development opportunities to enrich the organization (Cooke, 2005).

Profitability - A well trained employee provides effective services to the candidates and they can provide effective services to the customers. In case the customer are provided with effective services the profitability can be increased as customer base will increase.   

Organization Culture - Training and Development will enable business to create, promote and foster an organizational environment as the employees are provided with growth opportunities.   In this way a learning culture can be developed in the organization.  

Quality - The quality of services can be improved through providing effective training to the employees. It will help in gaining competitive advantage (ltman, 2009).  

The service industry has become more complicate as number of competitors have been increased in the industry.  In this case training and development create a new phase.  It is important as it provides ways to distinguish offerings from other competitors. In order to gain competitive advantages in service industry Marriott has to take below initiatives:

  • It has to offer best quality services   while providing cost-effective training to the employees. 
  • The demand of customer can be satisfied through accessing their needs and wants.
  • The employee are to be provided with opportunities to continuous development and enhancing knowledge along skills.
  • Cultural values are to be developed at the workplace so that employees can be motivated for better performance.  
  • All the employment laws are to be followed while offering diversity and growth opportunities for all employees.
  • By giving ongoing leadership employees are to be motivated.  
  • The employees are to be provided with resources and tools to improve and enhance efficiency(Ayeni, Tella, and Popoola, 2007)

CONCLUSION

In the above report, the current state of employment relations has been assessed while identifying the impact of employment law in the industry. To evaluate the task, UK's famous hotel chain has been selected. In the report, job description and person specification for hospitality industry job has been described. Selection process specification for Marriott has been defined and contribution of training and development activities has been accessed. 

REFERENCES  

Agarwala, T., 2002. Human Resource Management: The Emerging Trends. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 

Cooke, L. F., 2005. HRM, Work and Employment in China. Psychology Press.

Ruël, M. J. H., 2011. Electronic HRM in Theory and Practice. Emerald Group Publishing.

Srimannarayana, M., 2006. Human Resource Management in Small Business. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations.  

Fileds, C., 2012.  Recruiting Really is The Most Important HR Function. [Online]. Accessed through <http://www.smartrecruiters.com/blog/recruiting-really-is-the-most-important-hr-function.

ltman, Y., 2009. From human resources to human beings: managing people at work. Human Resource Management International Digest.

What is a Human Resources Information System (HRIS). 2014. [Online]. Available tHRough: <http://www.dresserassociates.com/what-is-HRis.php>. [Accessed on 21stJanuary 2015].

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