Advertising and Promotion

Marketing in past few years has evolved by considerable margins, as today it is now one of the most important functions and tasks which have to be carried out by management of an organization (Boone, 2012). This facet can be assessed on basis of fact that there are numerous sub-functions in the marketing process and have to be given a lot of attention to by the management. In this regard, advertising and promotions can be termed as some of the oldest components of marketing. Over the years, it has developed by significant margins, both in terms of advancements that have happened in them and in terms of importance that they hold for business organizations. The present report discusses about communication processes which can be applied on tasks of advertising and promotions. Apart from this, it also presents in brief, the organization as well as history of the industry. One of the main purposes of developing this assignment is to identify and also understand the various issues which business managers in the modern marketing environment have to face. In addition to it, the paper also describes about role that advertising plays in an integrated promotional strategy.


LO 1.1 Communication process that applies to advertising and promotion

Advertising and promotions is that part of overall marketing strategy of an organization, which requires that the best and most appropriate communication tactics and channels be used. Communication is of great essence for making advertising and promotions campaign effective and successful (Arnold, 2009). This mainly because of reason that it enables the management to develop and put in place such policies and practices through which effective delivery of the strategy in market can be ensured. Communication process which can be applied into advertising and promotions, consists of nine main elements of components – sender, recover, message, media, encoding, decoding, response, feedback and noise. This process can be applied as follows:

Through this process, it is clear that only the traditional form of communication can be applied in advertising and promotions. It is one very best and effective option for the industry. Herein it can be seen that to effectively communicate or interact with the target audience, sender, i.e. the management will have to develop a message for the masses (Ivy, 2008). This means that an advertisement will be prepared in this stage. Next the same message or communiqué will be sent to the receiver – the target audience, through help of various kinds of media, such as print and electronic media. Such messages or communiqué, in normal sense would be encoded in some or the other form, this in turn would be helpful in ensuring truthfulness of the message. This method will again help in protecting the message from getting corrupted or distorted. The memo then is delivered to the customers – the intended audience, can also be termed as receiver in this process. After this receiver, reads and/or understands the message given by company by decoding it, and then sends the necessary feedback or responses to it. Another very important constituent of the communication process is ‘Noise’, i.e. the disturbance and distortion that happens while a message is being delivered to intended receiver. For the sender it is crucial to note that, though such disturbances are always present, do not affect the communiqué in a very bad sense.

LO 1.2 Organization of the advertising and promotions industry

Today one of the most important arms of marketing strategies, for every company, irrelevant of the market that it may be operating in, is that of advertising and promoting its business (Lim, Acito and Rusetski, 2006). There are four main components of advertising and promotions industry. They have been discussed in the following points:

Advertiser or the client: This is the very first element of advertising and promotions industry. Herein, firm which wants to market its products and/or services in the market, is known as advertiser. It is crucial to note that advertiser(s) are the most crucial aspect of such campaigns, as without them, no campaign can be developed and also that it cannot be launched in the market.

Advertising Agencies: These are the other very critical element of a promotional campaign. Advertisers contact these agencies, which are then tasked with the responsibility of developing required ads and also launching them in the target market (West and Prendergast, 2009). There are a lot many such companies, all around the world which prepare advertisement and promotional campaigns and then launch them in targeted market.

Media: Many authors, industry experts and industry experts have said that media, essentially is a tool which sells itself to companies, i.e. the advertisers, so as to help them in marketing their goods in the market. It is crucial for making any promotional strategy effective and successful, because without it, the developed message cannot be delivered to public, i.e. the target audience (Kadir, 2013).

Marketing communication services: There are various organizations in the market that are specialized in developing and providing marketing communication services to clients. It entails that unique but highly effective and specialized tools be used so as to market the desired good to customers and also ensure that effective communication services are used for the same aspect.

LO 1.3 How promotion is regulated

Advertising and promotion is one of the most regulated industries, not only in the world but in UK as well. There are a variety of rules, policies and procedures that have to be followed and compiled by advertising agencies in the nation (Dawson, 2001). One of them is that of Federal Regulation of Advertising. The governing body in this context is given the responsibility to help businesses obtain, manage and supervise concepts such as freedom of speech, along with the various commercial aspects which have to be taken care of by management of an organization. Another piece of regulation in this aspect is that of Data Protection Act, it is another prominent way in which the industry is controlled and regulated. It states that marketing campaigns must be developed in such a manner that data about any party, directly or indirectly associated with the organization does not leaks in the market and also that it is properly safeguarded against threats such as data theft and the likes. Self regulation is another form of regulation which has to be followed by business organizations while managing their advertising and promotional campaigns in the market (Marsh, 2013). Herein, the business organizations have to ensure that such strategies are developed and deployed in market in such a manner that they are as per the norms and regulations laid down by government and other such regulatory bodies. There is another way as well through which these institutions monitor the working of different ads. One of them is that they monitor and evaluate the ads on a regular as well as very thorough basis, because of which they get information about whether the advertisements are as per the norms developed by them or not. The Committee of Advertising Practices (CAP) is tasked with responsibility of ensuring that business organizations are not using unethical means and practices of advertising and also that they do not defame any other business organization operating in the same market.

LO 1.4 Current trends in advertising and promotion

It is a well known fact that advertising and promotions is one of the most important aspects of marketing that have to be considered and kept in mind by management of an organization, mainly because of reason that its impact is significant on operations of the firm, as well as its marketing effort (Weinstein, 2004). At present there are a lot of trends prevailing in the market that are related to advertising and promotions industry. One of them is that of viral marketing. It has emerged to be one of the leading forms of marketing and also very popular ones among the general public. Viral marketing basically, can be defined as that form of advertising and promotions which become extremely popular in the target market and are also liked by the people. Today it is considered to be one of the most effective forms of advertising and promotions, mainly because of reason that it helps business organizations to create a stir in the market, which eventually leads to awareness generation and thus positively affecting sales of organization. Another significant trend prevailing in the market is social media marketing (SMM). It is a term which is used to coin all those marketing activities that are carried out on social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, etc (O'Guinn, Allen and Semenik, 2011). Although it has been used by firms since last many years, but it has picked up pace in recent times, as companies are now seeing it as one of the most effective forms of advertising and promotions, majorly because of reason that it helps the firm in expanding its reach to every corner of the world.

In addition to it, various tools are also being used very extensively by business organizations so as to market their goods and/or services in the market. It is known as QR (Quick Response) Codes. These display information about the designated products, when it is scanned by using camera of mobile phone (Kim, 2000). Since everyone now uses a smart phone, advertising one’s products through such codes can prove to be a very effective form of marketing for companies.


LO 2.1 Role of advertising in an integrated promotional strategy

For any business organization, regardless of the market that it operates in, it is important for the firm to develop and implement an integrated promotional strategy. This is mainly because of reason that a well integrated and linked marketing tactic, helps in making it even more effective and thus successful. This way the firm can reap benefits of its marketing efforts. In such strategies, a very vital component is that of advertising. Without it, there are no chances for the firm to be able to make their marketing strategies successful and efficient. This facet of marketing is crucial to fast food organizations as well (Steenkamp and et. al, 2005).

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Advertising can be defined as that form of marketing communications, which helps companies to persuade and convince to try and buy the products and/or services that they may be offering in the market. There are a lot of reasons, which can also be termed as objectives that state why advertising is a very crucial element of integrated promotional mix. One of them is the fact that it helps business organizations, in the case the fast food restaurant, to reach out to a large number of customers and also in attracting them (Agrawal, 2006). Other than this, it also enables the organizations to attract, interact and convince the customers to buy whatever goods they may be selling in the market. In addition to it, through help of advertisements in an integrated promotional strategy, fast food companies can make sure that they have a complete information and data about needs and wants of target customers and also try to fulfill their varied demands and desires. Furthermore, the way in which the company is marketed, i.e. its goods and services, help in positioning the organization in market and also making a unique image for itself in the market.

LO 2.2 Explaining branding and how it is used to strengthen a business or a product

One of the most important aspects of marketing is that of branding. It is crucial for companies, such as the fast food restaurants, mainly because of reason that such aspects of advertising and promotions help the firm to build a unique image for self in market (Kotler, 2009). Branding is that part of marketing efforts that enable the firm to just not only be unique, but also to make sure that target customers or the audience, view (perceive) differently from that of rival organizations in the market. For companies it is a very important points that have to be given a lot of consideration and thought by management of a company, primarily because of reason that it is directly related with efficiency and success of marketing efforts of the fast food restaurants. Branding is crucial for the organization, mainly because of fact that it helps firm to establish itself in the market in a very unique manner, thus ensuring that management can position the company, differently from that of its competitors (Hill, 2006).

Branding is also important from view point that it enables authorities to strengthen their goods in a successful and effective manner. This aspect of marketing becomes important from view point that there are a wide variety of business organizations, i.e. fast food restaurants operating in the market, making this as one of the most competitive market places in country. In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that through strategies of branding, such activities can be carried out that would bring strength to company’s position in the market. Many authors and industry academicians have claimed it to be a tool through which companies can attain a position that they wanted to reach and then maintain it as well (Allred and, 2010). There are a range of strategies, tactics and methods through which the task of branding can be carried out. These if used properly and effectively, can help management at the fast food restaurant to create a unique position for itself in the market and also bring about great strength into regular operations as well as the products and/or services that they offer.

LO 2.3 Creative aspects of advertising

One of the most crucial elements of a marketing strategy is that it must be highly creative and unique, so that it may sound to be different from other such strategies in the market. There are a lot of aspects and points that have to be considered while developing an advertising campaign. There are three main constituents of it – creative process; creative situation and a creative person. For developing highly imaginative and thus increasing chances of a successful marketing campaign, it is important to follow a creative process (Baker, 2004). It is that system through which an individual may be able to develop some creative ads. These processes and systems can differ from person to person, as every individual will have their own ways through which they can develop creative ads.

Other than this, presence of a creative situation also is of great importance. In its absence, there are prominent chances that the marketer may not be able to develop an imaginative ad and thus help the business firm to attract more and more customers. These can be termed as those situations where the individual can think in a creative manner and thus be able to develop a highly imaginative advertising campaign. The last element herein is that of the creative person (Lepkowska-White and et. al, 2014). It entails that for preparing highly effective campaigns, the person must be a born creative individual, as it is the only way a creative ad can be developed and launched in the market.

There are some other aspects of advertising as well that are related to creativity. They are related to the communication channels and strategies used by business organizations (Corkindale and Newall, 2008). The impact of different interactive methods on customers is substantial, which thus makes an advertising campaign successful. There are some points that have to be considered while communicating a particular ad to the target customers. One of them is that it should be able to convey position of the company as well as product that it is advertising for. In addition to it, the marketing campaign must be delivered to the target audience only. If it is delivered to other audience, then there are chances that it may not be successful. One of the very creative innovative ads was developed and used by Sugar Free, wherein its bill boards were seen floating in the air, but were tied through ropes on the ground. This is a creative ad in terms that the company, through it intended to give a message which stated that by using sugar free in daily lives, substantial weight loss can be done. Another such ad was used by Nike to promote its running gear. To do this, company removed bottoms of the park benches in many areas. This way, the firm gave a clear message that they wanted to promote their running gear in the country.

LO 2.4 Ways of working with other agencies

It is crucial for an organization to select a competitive and the perfect agency to fulfill its marketing objectives. It is even more significant and crucial for the organization to work appropriately with the selected ad agency in order to maintain long-term relationship and to get the best out of the agency against the payment made for their service. Thus, it is crucial to learn to work with as ad agency (Rosenbloom and Dimitrova, 2011). An organization must consider following points in order to strengthen its working with an ad agency:

Set an Advertising Budget - This is the first aspect to be considered and it requires setting budget for a specific ad campaign which will tell the agency as to what all stuff needs to be included as well as excluded from the ad or promotional campaign. The advertising budget will typically be proportionate to the overall marketing budget of the firm. This is why company needs to have clear idea as to how much budget needs to be involved for any specific ad or campaign (Baker, 2004).

Measuring Effectiveness – An organization needs to consider together with the agency, how it will measure the ad effectiveness. Only then the company will be able to determine whether it is getting value for money. This can be done by a number of ways such as before-and-after research of market on brand recognition etc.

Length of Contract – It is crucial for the company to determine the length of contract to be established with the ad agency and this will help avoiding any conflict or confusion in future (Allred and, 2010).

Agreeing details and schedules of campaign – This involves management of the company to agree with the details and schedules of campaign with the ad agency employed by the organization. This will help keep both the parties updated with the actions and activities of each other to implement the ad campaigns.

Agreeing Objectives – The objectives set by the enterprise are to be communicated to the ad agency so that the agency can integrate its own objectives with those of the company. This will provide coordination within the entire process of ad campaign (Lim, Acito and Rusetski, 2006).

Setting Terms of Payment – This involves company to set terms of payment in the initiation stages of campaign and makes the payment to the agency accordingly and regularly.

Building Measures of Safety – Company should involve clauses of confidentiality which will keep the ad agency from engaging into any illegal act that would damage the company (Boone, 2012).

Managing Relationship – Senior management of company must choose the ad agency and get involved in maintaining long-term and healthy relationship with the agency in order to boost sales and revenue.


LO 3.1 Primary techniques of below the line promotion

Promotion is another very crucial part of marketing activity that has to be carried out by business organizations. It is a critical component, mainly because of reason that it is that part which helps companies to reach out to a large number of customers and also to interact with them. This way management at the cosmetics company can determine the audience that they can target and sell the product to them (Hackley, 2005). There are a variety of promotional techniques which can be used by the organization in this regard. One of them is ‘below-the line’ promotional technique. Below the Line (BTL) promotion technique helps management to reach out to a plenty of customers by creating a niche for themselves in the market. In this regard it can be said that by using this method of promotions, management would be able to market their product by presenting it as a very unique and an exclusive one.


There are a lot many techniques that can be used by the company in this regard. One of them is the use of methods such as SMS marketing, email and other digital forms of marketing. It is a very effective form of BTL that can be used by the firm so as to be able to launch and maintain an effective promotional campaign in the market. Herein, management of the cosmetics company would have to prepare such messages which they can deliver to target audience through the aforementioned methods and techniques. This would make them feel very exclusive to the company, which in turn would attract and make them loyal (Corkindale and Newall, 2008). Other than this, door-to-door marketing is another technique of BTL which can be used by the firm. It entails that such people will have to be employed in the company who would have to be in the field, go to various houses in a particular locality and then market and in some cases sale the product to customers. In order to ensure that I use below-the-line promotional strategies and tools in an effective manner, I would have to make sure that it is effectively integrated with other marketing and promotional strategies of the cosmetics company. For the same I will have to see to it that the SMS’s being sent to target customers are the same as that used in other promotional techniques.

LO 3.2 Other techniques of BTL

BTL promotional strategies are very crucial part of marketing campaigns for the company, mainly because of reason that they help business firms to reach out to a lot of customers, attract and retain them as well. One of them is Door-to-Door selling technique. Considering nature of operations of the company, this would help the organization to generate awareness about their products in a very effective manner (Fraccastero, Burton and Abhijit Biswas, 2003). Herein, management will have to employ such individuals in the company, who would have to go to many houses, interact and convince customers to buy their product(s). Other than this, discount coupons can also be used by the organization for same purpose. To use this strategy, the cosmetics company will be required to distribute some coupons through which customers can get discounts when they buy a particular product of the organization. Loyalty program is another very effective technique that can be used by the company. It states that the organization would give some kind of discounts and benefits to customers of the firm who have been loyal to them for a considerable period of time (Barker, Valos and Shimp, 2012). This can prove to be a very effective BTL technique for the company, as it would help organization in satisfying and thus retaining their old customers for an even longer period of time. It would be useful in retaining not only the old clients, but also in attracting new customers. Through this method, the firm can be sure that its most loyal customers are benefited in some or the other way. Promotional pricing is another method that can be used by management of company for same purpose. It entails that authorities will be required to reduce prices of their products for a small or definitive period of time, thus enabling firm to magnetize even more customers.


LO 4.1 Appropriate process for formulation of a budget

For making a marketing effort highly effective and successful, it is important for companies that they prepare and adhere to a particular budget. This is mainly because of reason that it is a technique through which the organization can launch as well as maintain effectiveness of a marketing campaign in the market (Rosenbloom and Dimitrova, 2011). There are a lot of ways through which management of an organization can develop successful promotional campaigns. But the best one, which can also prove to be very helpful to the company, has been listed as below:
Observing the market: This is the very first step that can be taken by relevant authorities of an organization. It entails that a thorough analysis of the market be conducted, so as to identify and then assess various forces prevalent at marketplace. By doing taking this step the management can gather enough information about the area, i.e. the market that they are selling the product in (Griffin, 2002). This way correct and accurate decision can be taken by the authorities.

Assessing the firms’ strengths and weaknesses: It is the next step which has to be taken so as to develop effective budgets. It requires on part of authorities that they conduct a through internal analysis of the organization. It is a crucial step, mainly because of reason that it would enable the management to get information about the areas that need their utmost and undivided attention; and the ones that firm is strong in. Such a kind of information would be of great use for the firm in process of budget formulation (Passemard and Kleiner, 2000).

Measuring firms’ financial capability: This is another and also a very important part of the process of budget formulation. For management of the company it would be crucial that they measure and evaluate the organization’s financial capabilities. Through such a method, they can come to know about the financial strengths and limitations of the company (Blas, 2013). With help of such information, management can develop such budgets that may be helpful to the organization for making their marketing efforts successful.

Deciding on the goals and objectives: The next step that has to be taken in this regard is to decide on the targets which company wants to fulfill through help of their different marketing strategies. Herein by taking this aspect into account the management would be able to take a firm decision on what kind of budget they want to set for the marketing campaign.

LO 4.2 Development of a promotional plan

Promotion plan plays a significant role in spreading awareness of products or services and therefore it needs to be practiced in an effectual manner. With the help of it, more of customer can be attracted towards (Lim, Acito and Rusetski, 2006). However, to develop the promotional plan of new brand of car i.e. "cricket", integrated promotional techniques will be utilized. Since, it is a new brand therefore huge marketing is required. For this, Auto expo or auto show across the globe is one of the major platform from which cited car can be promoted. With the help of it, thousands of individuals who will visit to those shows will able to know about it. Through this, car brand will gain popularity and hence able to develop its own image in the automobile sector. In addition to it, promoting this car through auto expo will leads to publicity of car across the globe as media will cover the same. With this, large numbers of car lover will able to acknowledge about the same and hence will eventually leads to high awareness (Schepers and Berg, 2007).

Furthermore, social media is one of the key platforms which is popular among majority of youths and kids. Since, youth is a most likely market for this car, therefore promoting over social media like Facebook, Twitter and related will certainly helps company in boosting awareness. It will also help in gaining response from individuals from which appropriate decision regarding promotion can be taken. In addition to it, viral marketing through teaser and stunt performed by car "cricket" will assist in boosting the awareness. This will help company in generating enquiry which acts as a lead for sales team of this company. Through this, sales volume of company will be enhanced in an effectual manner (Hooley, Saunders and Piercy, 2009).

Cricket can even promote through automobile magazines and TV shows so that awareness among interest groups can be increased and hence sales can be enhanced. Through this, company can able to communicate directly with the audiences that have interest in cars. This will leads to word of mouth up to certain extent from which effectual results can be attained within the context of promotion (Nyilasy, Canniford and Kreshel, 2013). Advertisement over televisions will also be included in the promotion plan of Cricket in order to reach to large set of audiences at the first time. This will leads to mass marketing which will promote goods throughout the country. With this, company is able to attract more of customers on its side. Further, support from print media will also be included in promotion plan in order to boost awareness. For this, advertisement in newspaper and weekly magazines will be done in order to communicate with audiences of different backgrounds. Hoarding and banners at prominent places such as shopping malls, airports, parking area and other related places will aids in making effectual promotion. Also, car can be put on display at places like shopping malls so that audiences can gain information from it. This will help in developing the list of potential customers from which sales can be increased.

LO 4.3 Planning of integration of promotional techniques into promotional strategy

Planning is that process of organizational working which entails that management must develop and prepare some tactics through which a particular activity can be carried out and implemented. It is that aspect of organizational working which entails preparing certain steps and stages so as that eventually organizational goals and objectives can be fulfilled. In any promotional strategy, a very crucial role is played by positioning (Hellman, 2005). It is that process through which an organization can create an image for itself in the market. It is a very crucial and important part of marketing campaigns, as it is an aspect that has substantial impact on working as well as existence of a firm in the market. There are plenty of strategies and tactics through which a company can position itself in the market. One of them is Push Strategy. Herein the good is pushed to final customers (Hoffman and Bateson, 2010). It is partially related to selling concept of marketing. It requires that management of the company must focus on sales of the good rather than other aspects of marketing and promotion. There are variety of techniques that can be used by company for the same purpose, such as sales promotions, discounts and many other such offers and schemes (Parsons and MacLaren, 2009). On the other hand, Pull strategy entails that company must look to attract customers towards the product, rather than pushing it out to the customers. It is a very useful and effective form of marketing strategy.

Push and Pull marketing strategies are completely different from one another. Push marketing is a form of outbound marketing; while pull marketing is inbound. In push strategy, focus of management is on placing the product in market in such a manner that it may appeal to target customers. While in pull marketing, company tries to create awareness about its ownself and also the product that it sells in market (Homburg and et. al, 2009). Push marketing usually is used by FMCG companies, such as Unilever. It gives incentives to retailers for pushing and selling their product. Companies which manufacture toys for children mostly uses the pull strategy. Through this tactic companies such as Toys R US plc, tries to attract more and more customers, i.e. children.

Public relations are another very crucial element of marketing strategies. It is that process which entails that management must try to build relations with the public and thus make sure that needs and wants of different stakeholders are met and fulfilled (Jones, 2009). For instance, LEGO has developed a complete channel on YouTube, and at Facebook, through which it attempts to interact and attract customers, i.e. the children to buy its products. For integrating the above stated promotional techniques with the organization’s promotional strategies, special attention will have to be paid on using social media and social networking sites. This would enable the management to make sure that process of promoting the goods in market will become a lot simpler and effective task. In this regard, management can promote their goods through help of social media, wherein, ad of the chocolate bar would be released on different social networking sites and then in various other media, such as television, newspapers, radio and the likes. By giving information on social networking sites, management would be able to create a stir in the market, that can prove to be very useful while promoting through various other means.

LO 4.4 Techniques for measuring campaign effectiveness

There are a lot of objectives that a company can look to attain through its marketing strategies. One such objective that the firm can look to fulfill here is to increase sales of the company (Belch and Belch, 2011). For the same purpose, management of the company would have to use marketing techniques of social media marketing and sales promotion to attract customers and make them buy the product.

Through a survey in the market, many customers knew about the product that company was selling in the market. Therefore it may not be wrong to say that the firm was able to reach out to a plenty of customers and thus increase its awareness in the market (Shimp and Andrews, 2013). Majority of them also said that they had bought the product, which is a clear indication that the company was able to meet its target which was developed earlier. Many respondents also said that they were happy with the good that they bought. Some of them also said that they wanted to buy products of the firm next time as well.


Advertising and promotions is one of the most important arms of marketing that has to be given due thought and consideration by management of a company. Without carrying out this activity, there are very less chances for a firm to be successful and also fulfill its aims and objectives. During this study, it was noted that in recent times the world of advertising and promotions has changed considerably, as trends have changed along with fact that the sector has experienced significant amount of development. One of the major trends which was noted in the research was that tools and techniques such as social media marketing, QR codes, etc have emerged and gained a lot of importance in the market.


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Belch, G. and Belch, M., 2011. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. 11th ed. McGraw-Hill Education.

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Hoffman, K, and Bateson, J., 2010. Services Marketing: Concepts, Strategies & Cases. Cengage Learning.

Hooley, G, Saunders, J and Piercy, N., 2009. Marketing Startaegy and Competitive Positioning. Prentice Hall International.

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